Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Oil Industry KYC: Know Your Conversions

Crude petroleum, and the refined products made from crude oil, are
normally measured either by volume in gallons and US barrels, or by weight
in tons or tonnes.  The relationship between volume and weight is usually
measured by density in the United Kingdom (the alternative measure is
relative density or specific gravity). American oilmen usually reckon
quantities of oil produced, moved or processed in barrels per day (bpd
or b/d). The loose but simple rule of thumb for conversion is that a barrel
a day is roughly 50 tonnes a year, but the relationship varies according
to density and so according to product.


CONVERSION FACTORS FOR OIL
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
                                       At 86°F (30°C)
                           -----------  Approximation -------------------
                           Liters      Liters      A.Gallons   A.Barrels
        Product            per         per         per         per
                           E.Ton       M.Ton       M.Ton       M.Ton
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        L.P.G              1,864       1,835       484.6       11.54
        JP.4               1,355       1,333       352.4        8.39
        Jet A-1            1,274       1,254       331.2        7.89
        Premium            1,375       1,353       357.5        8.51
        Regular            1,440       1,418       374.5        8.92
        Kerosene           1,293       1,273       336.2        8.00
        Gas Oil            1,197       1,177       311.2        7.41
        Diesel Fuel        1,177       1,159       306.1        7.29
        Fuel oil  80 CST   1,082       1,065       281.2        6.70
        Fuel oil 180 CST   1,067       1,050       277.4        6.60
        Fuel oil 230 CST   1,064       1,047       276.6        6.59
        Fuel oil 280 CST   1,061       1,044       275.9        6.57
        Bitumen              994         979       258.5        6.15
        -----------------------------------------------------------------

1 MMSCF of natural gas          = 172.3 barrels of crude oil equivalent
                                = 365 x 1,000,000 scf
1 million cu.ft. of natural gas = 18.91 tons liquid
                                = 1598.69 cu.ft.liquid
1 std.cu.feet of natural gas    = 1000 BTU = 252 kilocalories
1 m.ton of coal                 = 4.879 barrels of crude oil equivalent
1 m.ton of lignite              = 2.053 barrels of crude oil equivalent
1 ltr of fuel oil 1500 sec      = 38.9 cubic feet of natural gas
1 kg of LPG                     = 47.0 cubic feet of natural gas
1 normal cu.m. per day (Nm3/d)  = 37.33 standard cu.ft. per day (SCFD)
  [flow rate of gas]
1 ton of LNG                    = 1.14 1.4 x 103 normal cu.m.natural
  (LNG conversions)               gas (Nm3)
                                = 52.3 x 103 standard cubic feet natural
                                  gas (SCF)
                                = 55.0 x 109 joules (HHV)
1 ton of LNG                    = 1.22 tonne crude oil
  (energy equivalents)          = 0.80 tonne heavy fuel oil
                                = 0.91 tonne LPG (commercial composition)
                                = 1.91 tonne coal
1 barrel per day (b/d)          = 50 tonnes per year (approx.)
1 barrel of oil equivalent      = 1 barrel of crude oil
                                = 5,487 cubic feet of gas *
  * Natural gas is converted to barrels of oil equivalent using a ratio of
5,487 cubic feet of natural gas per one barrel of crude oil. This ratio is
based on the actual average equivalent energy content of TOTAL's natural gas
reserves.
  1 barrel of crude oil per day   = appr. 50 tons of crude oil per year
1 ton of crude oil              = 1 metric ton of crude oil
                                = appr. 7.3 barrels of crude oil (assuming
                                  a specific gravity of 33 API)
                                = 6.6-8.0 bbl. of crude oil with 7.333 bbl.
                                  taken as average
                                = 1.16 kl. of crude oil (average)
1 ton of oil equivalent         = appr. 1,125 cubic meters of natural gas


MMSCF   Million standard cubic feet
CST     Centi-Stroke
A.      American
E.      English

VOLUME  1 American barrel       = 158.984 liters
                                = 42 American (US) gallons
                                = 34.9726 Imperial (UK) gallons
                                = 5.6146 cubic feet
                                = 0.15899 cubic metre
                                = 3.78541 cubic decimeters (dm3)
                                = 0.136 tonne (approx)
        1 American gallon       = 231 cubic inches
                                = 0.133681 cubic foot
                                = 3.7854 liters
                                = 0.0238095 American barrel
                                = 0.83268 Imperial gallon
                                = 0.0037854 cubic meter
        1 Imperial gallon       = 277.42 cubic inches
                                = 1.20094 American gallons
                                = 4.54609 liters
                                = 0.028594 American barrel
                                = 0.160544 cubic foot
                                = 0.004561 cubic meter
        1 liter                 = 1,000 cubic centimeters
                                = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3)
                                = 0.035314 cubic foot
                                = 61.024 cubic inches
                                = 1.7597 pints
                                = 0.219969 Imperial gallon
                                = 0.26417 American gallon
        1 kiloliter             = 1,000 cubic decimeters (dm3)
                                = 6.28981 American barrels
        1 gross ton             = 100 cubic feet or 2.83 cubic metres of
          (shipping)              permanently enclosed space
        1 cubic meter           = 35.315 cubic feet
                                = 219.97 Imperial gallons
                                = 1,000 liters
                                = 6.2898 American barrels
                                = 264.17 American gallons
WEIGHT  1 oz.                   = 28.35 grams
        1 lb.                   = 0.453592 kilograms
                                = 0.009 cwt.
        1 kg.                   = 2.20462 lb.
                                = 0.01 quintal
        1 cwt                   = 112 lb.
                                = 50.802 kg.
        1 metric ton            = 0.98421 long ton or English ton
                                = 1.10231 short ton
                                = 2,204.6 lb
        1 English ton           = 1.01605 metric tons
          or long ton           = 1.12 short tons
        1 short ton             = 0.907186 metric ton
                                = 0.892857 long ton
                                = 2,000 lb.
        * These conversions are based on the assumption that all weights
          are weights in air, which is the correct basis for computing
          bulk commercial quantities of petroleum.
PRICE   1 US cent/AG            = 0.42 US$/BBL
        1 US$/BBL               = 0.163 Baht/Liters
                                  (Based on exchange rate of 25.9 Baht/US$)

PETROLEUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY VOLUME PER TON
       ----------------------------------------------
        Degree     Specific    Barrels *   Long tonne
        API        gravity     per metric
                               tonne
       ----------------------------------------------
        25         0.904       6.98        7.09
        26         0.898       7.02        7.13
        27         0.893       7.06        7.18
        28         0.887       7.10        7.22
        29         0.882       7.15        7.27
        30         0.876       7.19        7.31
        31         0.871       7.24        7.36
        32         0.865       7.28        7.40
        33         0.860       7.33        7.45
        34         0.855       7.37        7.49
        35         0.850       7.42        7.54
        36         0.845       7.46        7.58
        37         0.840       7.51        7.63
        38         0.835       7.55        7.67
        39         0.830       7.60        7.72
        40         0.825       7.64        7.76
        41         0.820       7.69        7.81
        42         0.816       7.73        7.85
       ----------------------------------------------
                                * Approx. figures 60°F
                                      141.5
                Specific gravity = ------------
                                   131.5 + °API



POWER AND HEAT UNITS 
        1 HP (UK Horsepower)    = 550 foot pounds per second
                                = 0.7457 kilowatt
                                = 1.014 PS (or Cheval Vapeur)
        1 PS (Pferdestaerke)    = 542 foot pounds per second
          or CV (Cheval Vapeur) = 0.986 hp
                                = 0.736 kW
        1 kW (Kilowatt)         = 1,000 watts
                                = 1,340 hp
                                = 1.359 PS or CV
                                = 737 foot pounds per second
        1 foot pound per second = 0.00136 kilowatt
                                = 0.00182 hp
                                = 0.00184 PS or CV
        1000 Btu                = 0.293 kWh
        100,000 Btu             = 1 therm
        1 calorie (dieticians') = 4.1855 kilojoules
        1 Therm                 = 100,000 Btu (British Thermal Units)
                                = 25,200 kilocalories
                                = 25.2 thermies
                                = 29.3 kilowatt hours
        1000 kilocalories       = 3,968 Btu
             (Large Calories)   = 1.163 kilowatt hours
                                = 1 thermie
        1 kilowatt hour         = 3,411 Btu
                                = 1.340 hp hours
                                = 859.6 kilocalories

LIQUEFIED METHANE
        1 Ton of Liquefied      = approximately 16 barrels
          Methane               = approximately 50,000 cubic feet
                                  (1400 cubic meters) of natural gas,
                                  depending on methane content

PRODUCT SPECIFIC GRAVITY RANGES
        ---------------------------------------------------
                                Spec.         Barrels per
                                Gravity       metric ton
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Crude oils              0.80-0.97       8.0-6.6
        Aviation gasolines      0.70-0.78       9.1-8.2
        Motor gasolines         0.71-0.79       9.0-8.1
        Kerosines               0.78-0.84       8.2-7.6
        Gas oils                0.82-0.90       7.8-7.1
        Diesel oils             0.82-0.92       7.8-6.9
        Lubricating oils        0.85-0.95       7.5-6.7
        Fuel oils               0.92-0.99       6.9-6.5
        Asphaltic bitumens      1.00-1.10       6.4-5.8
        ---------------------------------------------------

CALORIFIC VALUE OF FULES
           Rough gross values in Btu per lb
        -------------------------------------
        Crude oils              18,300-19,500
        Gasolines                      20,500
        Kerosines                      19,800
        Benzole                        18,100
        Ethyl alcohol                  11,600
        Gas oils                       19,200
        Fuel oils (bunker)             18,300
        Coal (bituminous)       10,200-14,600
        LNG                            22,300
        LPG (butane)                   21,300
        -------------------------------------

TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF EXPORT STREAMS
        ----------------------------------------
                        MIRI   Bintulu  Labuan
        ----------------------------------------
        API Gravity      33°     35°      32°
        Pour Point      45°F    15°F     45°F
        Wt. % Sulphur   0.07    0.1      0.07
        ----------------------------------------

PRESSURE
        1 Bar                   = 0.987 atmospheres
                                = 750.1 mm Hg
                                = 14.50 pound/sq inch
                                = 1.020 kg force/sq cm
        1 kg force/sq cm        = 14.22 pounds/sq inch
        1 pound/sq inch         = 0.070 kg force/sq inch

HEAT AND ENERGY
        1 megajoule             = 238.8 kilocalories
                                = 947.8 British Thermal Units
                                = 0.278 kilowatt hours
        1 terajoule             = 0.00002388 Mtoe
        1 kilocalorie           = 3.968 Btu
                                = 4186 joules
                                = 1.163 x 10-3 kWh
        1 kilowatt hour         = 859.8 kilocalories
                                = 3412 Btu
        1 million Btu           = 1055 megajoule
                                = 2520 megacalories
                                = 293.1 kilowatt hours
        1 ton of oil equivalent = 10000000 kilocalories
          (toe)                 = 41.868 gigajoules
                                = 40.047 x 106 BTU
                                = 42.244 GJ

INTERFUEL CONVERSION FACTOR
        Whilst individual crudes, coals and gases vary widely in quality,
        certain standard qualities are often assumed for statistical
        purposes:
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Reference     Barrel Oil   Ton Oil     Ton Coal     1,000 Cubic
        Fuel          Equivalent   Equivalent  Equivalent   Feet Natural
                                                            Gas
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Calorific     5.8x106      43x106      7x106        1x106
        Value         Btu gross    Btu gross   Kcal net     Btu gross

        Conversion    1            0.14        0.21         5.8
         Factors      7.41         1           1.57         43.0
                      4.71         0.64        1            27.3
                      0.17         0.02        0.04         1
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Based on these qualities, the following equivalent rates of
        consumption can be used with reasonable accuracy:
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        LNG           NG           OIL         OIL          COAL
        t/y           106 mmcF/d  toe/y       boe/y        tce/y
                      109 Nm3/y
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        1             1.41         1.22        25           1.9
        0.71          1            0.87        18           39
        0.82          1.15         1           20           1.55
        0.04          0.056        0.049       1            0.076
        0.53          0.74         0.64        13           1
        -----------------------------------------------------------------

CALORIFIC VALUE
        1 magajoule/cu m        = 25.84 Btu/cu ft
        1 megajoule per normal  = 25.368 BTU per standard cubic feet
          cubic meter             (BTU/SCF)
                                = 2.388 x 102 kilocalorie per normal
                                  cubic meter (kcal/Nm3)
        1 kilocalorie/cu m      = 0.016 Btu/cu ft
        1 megajoule/kg          = 429.9 Btu/pound
        1 kilocalorie           = 1.8 Btu/pound (exact)
        1 Btu/cu ft             = 37.38 kilojoules/cu m
                                = 9.410 kilocalories/cu m
        1 Btu/pound             = 2.326 kilojoules/kg
                                = 0.556 kilocalories/kg

ENERGY VALUES
        Btu per lb:
        wood: green              4,400
              dry                7,310
        peat, sod                6,200
        lignite                  9,000
        coke                    12,100
        coal: bituminous        13,000
              anthracite        14,500
        oil:  fuel              18,500
              gas               19,500

==============================================================================
NATURAL GAS AND OTHER ENERGY EQUIVALENTS

The following are quick-reference equivalents. All figures are APROXIMATE
VALUES only for use where precision is not required. They are based on:

(i)     for natural gas:
        1,000 Btu/ft3 = 9,500 kcal/m3 (Groningen gas 8,400 kcal/m3)
(ii)    for LPG:
        an assumed 50/50 propane/butane mixture with (r) or (p) indicating
        that the LPG is either refrigerated or pressurised.
(iii)   calorific values, MMBtu (gross):
        per tonne       - LNG 51.8; LPG 47.3; oil 42.3; coal 27.3
        per barrel      - LNG 3.8; LPG (r) 4.45; LPG (p) 4.1; oil 5.8
        per cubic metre - LNG 23.8; LPG (r) 28; LPG (p) 25.8

Natural Gas: Cubic Metre Equivalents
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 mrd m3 Natural Gas per Year
        per year = 0.04 Tcf gas (38 trillion Btu)
                 = 890 000 tonnes oil
                 = 800 000 tonnes LPG
                 = 725 000 tonnes LNG
                 = 1.4 million tonnes coal
        per day  = 100 million ft3 gas
                 = 17 800 barrels oil
                 = 23 200 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 25 200 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 27 200 barrels LNG
1 million m3 Natural Gas per Day
        per year = 0.014 Tcf gas (14 trillion Btu)
                 = 325 000 tonnes oil
                 = 290 000 tonnes LPG
                 = 265 000 tonnes LNG
                 = 500 000 tonnes coal
        per day  = 37 million ft3 gas
                 = 6 500 barrels oil
                 = 8 500 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 9 200 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 9 900 barrels LNG
        1 m3 Groningen gas = 0.88 m3 (9 500 kcal)
        1 m3 (9 500 kcal) = 1.13 m3 Groningen gas

Natural Gas: Cubic Foot Equivalents
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 Tcf Natural Gas per Year
        per year = 27 mrd m3 gas (30 mrd Groningen)
                 = 24 million tonnes oil
                 = 37 million tonnes coal
        per day  = 2 700 million ft3 gas
                 = 470 000 barrels oil
100 MMcf Natural Gas per Day
        per year = 0.04 Tcf (37 trillion Btu)
                 = 1 mrd m3 gas (1.1 mrd Groningen)
                 = 860 000 tonnes oil
                 = 770 000 tonnes LPG
                 = 700 000 tonnes LNG
                 = 1.35 million tonnes coal
        per day  = 2.7 million m3 gas (3 million Groningen)
                 = 17 250 barrels oil
                 = 22 500 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 24 400 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 26 300 barrels LNG

LNG: Volumetric Equivalents
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 million tonnes LNG per Year
        per year = 77 million ft3 (liquid)
                 = 2.2 million m3 (liquid)
                 = 14 million barrels (liquid)
                 = 0.05 Tcf (gas)
                 = 1.4 mrd m3 (gas)
                 = 1.1 million tonnes LPG
                 = 1.2 million tonnes oil
                 = 52 trillion Btu
                 = 1.9 million tonnes coal
        per day  = 140 million ft3 (gas)
                 = 4 million m3 (gas)
                 = 37 500 barrels LNG
                 = 31 900 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 34 600 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 24 500 barrels oil
1 million m3 LNG per Year
        per year = 460 000 tonnes LNG
                 = 6.3 million barrels LNG
                 = 0.2 Tcf (gas)
                 = 0.6 mrd m3 (gas)
                 = 500 000 tonnes oil
                 = 560 000 tonnes oil
                 = 24 trillion Btu
                 = 870 000 tonnes coal
        per day  = 65 million ft3 gas
                 = 14 700 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 15 900 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 17 200 barrels LNG
                 = 11 200 barrels oil
        m3 = kilolitre

LPG & Ethane: Weight, Volume, Heat Conversions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Barrels Per Tonne
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            17.6         12.4         10.8         11.6
Refrigerated         11.5         10.8         10.4         10.6

Cubic Metres Per Tonne
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            2.80         1.97         1.71         1.84
Refrigerated         1.83         1.72         1.66         1.69

106 Btu Per Barrel
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            2.79         3.85         4.35         4.10
Refrigerated         4.27         4.41         4.49         4.45

106 Btu Per Cubic Metre
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            17.6         24.2         27.4         25.8
Refrigerated         26.9         27.7         28.3         28.0

106 Btu Per Tonne
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured     }      49.2         47.7         46.9         47.3
Refrigerated  }

1 Barrel/Day = Tonnes Per Annum
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            20.7         29.4         33.8         31.6
Refrigerated         31.7         33.8         35.0         34.4

Natural Gas: Inter-Fuel Price Equivalents (US Currency)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ONE CENT per MMBtu
        = 5.8 Cents per Barrel crude oil
        = 6.4 Cents per Barrel fuel oil
        = 5.2 Cents per Barrel naphtha
        = 4.5 Cents per Barrel LPG (r)
        = 4.1 Cents per Barrel LPG (P)
        = 3.8 Cents per Barrel LNG
ONE CENT per MMBtu
        = 0.42 Dollars per Tonne crude oil
        = 0.40 Dollars per Tonne fuel oil
        = 0.45 Dollars per Tonne naphtha
        = 0.47 Dollars per Tonne LPG
        = 0.52 Dollars per Tonne LNG
ONE DOLLAR per BARREL
        = 17 Cents per MMBtu crude oil
        = 16 Cents per MMBtu fuel oil
        = 19 Cents per MMBtu naphtha
        = 22 Cents per MMBtu LPG (r)
        = 24 Cents per MMBtu LPG (p)
        = 26 Cents per MMBtu LNG
ONE DOLLAR per TONNE
        = 2.4 Cents per MMBtu crude oil
        = 2.5 Cents per MMBtu fuel oil
        = 2.2 Cents per MMBtu naphtha
        = 2.1 Cents per MMBtu LPG
        = 1.9 Cents per MMBtu LNG
    ONE CENT per US gallon LPG = 10 CENTS per MMBtu

Oil and Coal Equivalent
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 million tonnes Oil per Year
        per year = 1.1 mrd m3 gas (1.3 mrd Groningen)
                 = 1.5 million tonnes coal
                 = 815 000 tonnes LNG
                 = 890 000 tonnes LPG
                 = 0.04 Tcf gas (42 trillion Btu)
        per day  = 115 million ft3 gas
                 = 3 million m3 gas
                 = 30 500 barrels LNG
                 = 26 000 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 28 300 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 20 000 barrels oil
1 million tonnes Coal per Year
        per year = 0.7 mrd m3 gas (0.8 mrd Groningen)
                 = 640 000 tonnes oil
                 = 525 000 tonnes LNG
                 = 580 000 tonnes LPG
                 = 0.03 Tcf gas (27 trillion Btu)
        per day  = 75 million ft3 gas
                 = 2 million m3 gas
                 = 19 700 barrels LNG
                 = 16 800 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 18 200 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 12 900 barrels oil
10 000 barrels Oil per Day
        per year = 0.6 mrd m3 gas
                 = 500 000 tonnes oil
                 = 780 000 tonnes coal
                 = 0.02 Tcf gas (21 trillion Btu)
        per day  = 58 million ft3 gas
                 = 1.5 million m3 gas

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rich Gas = natural gas having a gross calorific value of 41,868 kJ/m3.
This term is used particularly for the natural gas from the North Sea and
from Algeria.

Degree-days = the number of degree-days of a day is calculated on the
basis of a reference temperature set by experience at 16.5 C; it gives the
difference between that reference temperature and the daily mean temperature
if the latter is the lower.
The number of degree-days of a year is the sum of the degree-days registered
for each day of that year.

G-factor = invoicing factor representing the average monthly cost of
natural gas at the Belgian border in francs per gigajoule.

             1GJ        1Gcal      10-6 Btu   1toe       1kWh      1m3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1GJ          1          0.239      0.948      0.024      277.778   23.884
1Gcal        4.186      1          3.967      0.1        1,163     100
10-6 Btu     1.055      0.252      1          0.025      293.1     25.2
1toe         41.855     10         39.671     1          11,626    1,000
1kWh         3.600 10-3 0.860 10-3 3.421 10-3 0.083 10-3 1         86.011 10-3
1m3 rich gas 0.042      0.010      0.040      0.001      11.626    1
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             gigajoule  giga       British    ton oil    kilowatt
                        calorie    thermal    equivalent - hour
                                   unit

 Source: http://www.eppo.go.th/ref/UNIT-OIL.html

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